Congruent Triangles Examples

Postulates and theorems on congruent triangles are discussed using examples. More congruent triangles problems with detailed solutions are presented.



Side-Angle-Side (SAS) Congruence Postulate

If two sides (CA and CB) and the included angle ( BCA ) of a triangle are congruent to the corresponding two sides (C'A' and C'B') and the included angle (B'C'A') in another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

Side-Angle-Side (SAS) Congruence


Example 1: Let ABCD be a parallelogram and AC be one of its diagonals. What can you say about triangles ABC and CDA? Explain your answer.

sas Congruence example


Solution to Example 1:

  • In a parallelogram, opposite sides are congruent. Hence sides

    BC and AD are congruent, and also sides AB and CD are congruent.

  • In a parallelogram opposite angles are congruent. Hence angles

    ABC and CDA are congruent.

  • Two sides and an included angle of triangle ABC are congruent to two corresponding sides and an included angle in triangle CDA. According to the above postulate the two triangles ABC and CDA are congruent.

Side-Side-Side (SSS) Congruence Postulate

If the three sides (AB, BC and CA) of a triangle are congruent to the corresponding three sides (A'B', B'C' and C'A') in another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

Side-Side-Side (SSS) Congruence


Example 2: Let ABCD be a square and AC be one of its diagonals. What can you say about triangles ABC and CDA? Explain your answer.

sss Congruence example

Solution to Example 2:

  • In a square, all four sides are congruent. Hence sides

    AB and CD are congruent, and also sides BC and DA are congruent.

  • The two triangles also have a common side: AC. Triangles ABC has three sides congruent to the corresponding three sides in triangle CDA. According to the above postulate the two triangles are congruent. The triangles are also right triangles and isosceles.

Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) Congruence Postulate

If two angles (ACB, ABC) and the included side (BC) of a triangle are congruent to the corresponding two angles (A'C'B', A'B'C') and included side (B'C') in another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) Congruence


Example 3: ABC is an isosceles triangle. BB' is the angle bisector. Show that triangles ABB' and CBB' are congruent.

asa Congruence example

Solution to Example 3:

  • Since ABC is an isosceles triangle its sides AB and BC are congruent and also its angles BAB' and BCB' are congruent. Since BB' is an angle bisector, angles ABB' and CBB' are congruent.

    Two angles and an included side in triangles ABB' are congruent to two corresponding angles and one included side in triangle CBB'. According to the above postulate triangles ABB' and CBB' are congruent.

Angle-Angle-Side (AAS) Congruence Theorem

If two angles (BAC, ACB) and a side opposite one of these two angles (AB) of a triangle are congruent to the corresponding two angles (B'A'C', A'C'B') and side (A'B') in another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

Angle-Angle-Side (AAS) Congruence


Example 4: What can you say about triangles ABC and QPR shown below.

aas Congruence example

Solution to Example 4:

  • In triangle ABC, the third angle ABC may be calculated using the theorem that the sum of all three angles in a triangle is equal to 180 derees. Hence

    angle ABC = 180 - (25 + 125) = 30 degrees

  • The two triangles have two congruent corresponding angles and one congruent side.

    angles ABC and QPR are congruent. Also angles BAC and PQR are congruent. Sides BC and PR are congruent.

  • Two angles and one side in triangle ABC are congruent to two corresponding angles and one side in triangle PQR. According to the above theorem they are congruent.

Right Triangle Congruence Theorem

If the hypotenuse (BC) and a leg (BA) of a right triangle are congruent to the corresponding hypotenuse (B'C') and leg (B'A') in another right triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

Right Triangle Congruence


Example 5: Show that the two right triangles shown below are congruent.

right triangle Congruence example

Solution to Example 5:

  • We first use Pythagora's theorem to find the length of side AB in triangle ABC.

    length of AB = sqrt [5 2 - 3 2] = 4

  • One leg and the hypotenuse in triangle ABC are congruent to a corresponding leg and hypotenuse in the right triangle A'B'C'. According to the above theorem, triangles ABC and B'A'C' are congruent.

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