Grade 12 How to Make a Sign Table of Polynomials - Questions with Detailed Solutions



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Grade 12 How to Make a Sign Table of Polynomials
Questions with Detailed Solutions

How to make a sign table for polynomials. Grade 12 math questions are presented along with detailed solutions and graphical interpretations.

  1. Polynomoal p is given by $$p(x) = (x - 1)^2(x - √3) (x + √3) $$

    Make a sign table of p and sketch a possible graph for p.

    Solution

    We first find the zeros of p.

    p(x) = (x - 1)2 (x - √3) (x + √3) = 0

    For p(x) = 0, we need to have

    (x - 1)2 = 0 , or (x - √3) = 0 , or (x + √3) = 0

    Solve each of the above equations to obtain the zeros of p(x).

    x = 1 (multiplicity 2) , x = √3 and x = - √3

    c) With the help of the factored form of p(x) and its zeros found above, we now make a table of signs using:

    (x - 1)2 is positive for all x except at x = 1

    x - √3 > 0 for x > √3

    x + √3 > 0 for x > - √3

    We put each factor in the table and use the rules of multiplication of signs to complete the sign for p as shown below.

    table of sign question 3 .



    We use the zeros of p(x) which graphically are shown as x intercepts, the table of signs and the y intercept (0 , -3) to complete the graph as shown below.

    polynomials question 1 .


  2. f(x) is a polynomial of degree six with a negative leading coefficient. f has a zero of multiplicity 1 at x = -1, a zero of multiplicity 3 at x = 1, and a zero of multiplicity 2 at x = 3. Make a sign table for the polynomial f.

    Solution

    We first write the factors of polynomial f with their multiplicity.

    zero of multiplicity 1 at x = -1 : factor: x + 1

    zero of multiplicity 3 at x = 1 : factor: (x - 1)3

    zero of multiplicity 2 at x = 3 : factor: (x - 3)2

    Let k (negative) be the leading coefficient of f. Using all the above factors, we write f(x) as

    f(x) = k (x + 1)(x - 1)3(x - 3)2

    We first study the sign of the different factors of f.

    x + 1 > 0 for x > - 1

    (x - 1)3 > 0 for x > 1

    (x - 3)2 > 0 for all x except x = 3

    Below is shown the table of signs of each factor and of the polynomial f(x) in the bottom row.

    table of sign question 2 .



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